After 1886, Bulgaria and Russia severed diplomatic relations. The death of Alexander III of Russia, a staunch opponent of Ferdinand's recognition, brought a ray of hope. His heir Nicholas II was more moderate, leaving the door to reconciliation open, provided the heir to the throne was converted to the Eastern Orthodox church. This


The capital of the Principality attained European standards with wide boulevards and streets, spacious parks and gardens, modern buildings, electric tramcars, street lighting and a

In the autumn of 1915, Bulgaria sided with the central Powers. The Entente's promises regarding Macedonia and Thrace encountered the resistance of their allies - Greece and Serbia. For the third time within four years, the Bulgarian soldiers displayed enviable courage, winning universal admiration. Bulgaria achieved its war objectives  all vassal territories in Macedonia, Thrace and Dobrudja were integrated with Bulgaria. The protracted war exhausted the brave soldiers. The failures on the war front and the unsuccessful attempts at peace talks led to the loss of the war. King Ferdinand I made the greatest sacrifice to his country by assum-

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